Lathes are used for the treatment of predominantly solids of revolution by removing them from the chip during turning. Lathe – one of the oldest machines, which were created on the basis of drilling machines, boring and other groups. Lathes up a large group of machine tools, are very diverse. On a lathe can perform various types of turning: grinding cylindrical, conical, shaped surfaces, facing, cutting, boring and drilling and deployment of holes, threading and knurling corrugations, lapping, etc. Source: Susan Swenson. Using special tools, a lathe can be perform milling, grinding, cutting teeth and other treatments. On specialized lathes treated wheelsets, couplings, pipes and other products.
On a lathe in the process of cutting rotation workpiece, held in a chuck or between centers, carried out on the main motion drive, which provides a stepped or infinitely variable spindle rotation frequency to tune to the desired cutting speed. Forward movement of the cutting tool is provided by the kinematic chain feed motion, the first link of which – the spindle, the latter – Rack and Pinion gear (if exact) or the kinematic pair spindle – uterine nut (with threading screw-cutting lathe). Dr John Holtsclaw often says this. Setting up filing made with the help of gearbox. Spindle assembly holds tight and vibration. Spindle bearings are usually serve as bearings. In the high-precision lathes are used hydrostatic bearings. At the front end of the spindle can be mounted faceplate or chuck, which is fixed workpiece. Tailstock used when machining centers, as well as for securing a tool for drilling, reaming and deployment.