1. Background: Until the early days in the period of early state formation, trade and industry development of defense tools, the Chinese in the year 100 BC found some of the oil properties by taking advantage of its insolubility and flammability sought the fire to enemy ships in their battles, performing well the first signs of oil exploitation in history, but the variety of hydrocarbons and the properties of this element, leads to countries to develop the mining industry oil, which was initially more basic elements such as bamboo, expressing properties of rapid growth and encourage the drilling of the soil to the search for oil, but even still unfulfilled complex processes as refining, so that and in the nineteenth century began the so-called black gold rush for their environmental consequences that would bring marketing. This mining activity, on geographical location, abundant natural resource areas such as swamps, marshes, rivers, streams and soil mostly with agricultural potential, livestock and fisheries and wetlands, often live with the deposits of oil exploitation and thus be harmed by the use of products physico-chemical as well as untreated waste or collected, which are usually dangerous or highly – environmental liabilities, and currently represents a growing threat worldwide. However, treatment of environmental liabilities in the oil industry represent an opportunity to implement an environmental management proposal investment, allowing characterize, assess your risk and implement mitigation measures designed to reduce potential risks posed to society. Although no precise inventory has respect, it is estimated that the world is generated annually about 350 to 400 million tons of hazardous waste. .